1. What does the concept of “third space” mean?

Before tackling what “third space” means, we must understand the reason for the need for a “third space”. Casmir (2016) saw the problems with intercultural communication models in the 60’s and 70’s. There were too many theories that had the goal of creating a complete catalogue of cultural attitudes, behaviors, and norms. These led to inaccurate generalizations. The models were also too hypothetical, and Casmir argued that these models should be applicable in real life as well. …


  1. Sorrells proposes a re-imagination of intercultural communication in the age of globalization. How is it a re-imagination and why is it necessary to propose it?

Sorrells proposes a reimagination by looking at intercultural communication through 3 perspectives: positionality, standpoint theory, and avoiding ethnocentrism. Positionality is gauging responses by looking at the speakers position in a socially constructed interconnected hierarchy. Standpoint theory is how we understand reality based on our social position. Everything we understand is filtered through our social reality. Lastly, avoiding ethnocentrism can be done by applying the previous 2 perspectives. Some scholars argued that in the past ethnocentrism…


  1. What is individualism and/or collectivism? What is the difference between individualism and collectivism?

Individualistic cultures place priority over individual goals over group goals. People in individualistic cultures value autonomy. Individuals take responsibility only for themselves and their immediate family. Collectivistic cultures on the other hand prioritize the group. People in collectivistic cultures are usually part of in-groups, and the people in these in groups help each other in return for loyalty to the in group. Hence, relationships are very valuable in collectivistic cultures, to the point where people might sacrifice individual benefit for the group. …


  1. What kinds of stimuli are defined by context?

The 2 stimuli that I can think of that are defined by context are space and time. Space can be a non-verbal form of communication because it communicates how close the relationship between two individuals are. For example when we talk to our friends or our family we are usually ok with them being physically close with us, however when we’re talking to a stranger we are less comfortable with how physically close they get. In terms of time, time communicates the importance we place on the people we are speaking to…


Contrary to the earlier Western views of the “self” as a single identity, the Communication Theory of Identity (CTI)takes a broader approach to the conception of identity. According to the CTI, since humans are social being, our identities are continuously being formed through our relationships, the communities we are in, and even by how we communicate. For example, when we are born, we immediately have the identity of being our mother’s child, and this can only happen because we have a relationship with our mother. …


Face-to-face classes should be brought back next school year because the current COVID-19 situation is more understood and controllable and because remote learning is ineffective and disadvantageous.

The world has been under a global pandemic for more than a year now. The Philippines, in particular, has undergone one of the world’s longest and strictest quarantines for a year. Because of this, students have not been allowed to have classes in their campuses and the government has mandated all educational institutions to implement remote learning. During the last school year, the quarantine was implemented near the end of the school year…


According to Lloyd Bitzer, a rhetorical situation is, “ a complex of persons, events, objects, and relations presenting an actual or potential exigence which can be completely or partially removed if discourse can constrain human decision or actions as to bring about the significant modification of the exigence.” I’ve interpreted this as an aggregate of persons, events, objects, and relations gathered under one goal which can be significantly affected if discourse can cause action towards the goal. Within a rhetorical situation, there are 3 aspects, namely the exigence, the audience, and the constraints. The exigence is something that requires changing…


The first difference between primary oral cultures and literary cultures is that primary oral cultures don’t know how to write and they don’t even know the concept of written words, while literary cultures are capable of written communication. A second difference between the two is that primary oral cultures are more additive as compared to literary cultures which are more subordinate. Primary oral cultures also use more adjectives to pair with nouns in order to make it more memorable, as compared to literary cultures which are more straight to the point. Primary oral cultures are also more redundant in their…

Enrique Raphael Versoza

On level 22, and growing

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